Wednesday, November 21, 2012


     A. Overview
            Bio-pesticide stands for biological pesticide which made from organic material without any synthetic substances (free from chemical substances). Most of the organic materials that are used to make bio-pesticide are got from the plants. We can use the root, leaf, or seed and make the essence to be bio-pesticide. Furthermore, it is very easy for us to make bio-pesticide, even for someone that does not deal in agriculture field.
            There are two kinds of bio-pesticides. The first one is bio-pesticide which is made from the essence of the plant, and the second one is bio-pesticide which is made from microbe. Bio-pesticide which is made from the essence of the plant can kill the pest like grasshopper, louse in the leaf, and soldier worm, whereas the bio-pesticide which is made from the microbe can kill the pest like nematode and insect pest. All kinds of the bio-pesticide kill the specific target.
            Many plants and microbes have been confirmed as the materials that can be used to make bio-pesticide. Some of the examples of the plant that can be used as the material for making the bio-pesticide are tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), nimba (Azedarachta indica), papaya (Carica papaya), garlic (Allium cepa), chili (Chapsicum annum), and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum). The qualification of the plant can be considered as the bio-pesticide is simple. The main qualification that must be fulfilled is the plant never or hard to be attacked by the pest or another harmful insect. Besides that, most of the materials to make a bio-pesticide from microbes come from the fungi, bacteria, virus, and protozoa. Some of the examples are pathogenic virus like NPV and GV, bacteria like Bacillus thuringiensis, and fungi like trichoderma can control several nematodes and insect pest.
             Bio-pesticide is easy to be made especially the bio-pesticide which is made from the essence of the plant. We just need to make the essence of the plant by squeezing the plant to get the essence. As the example, take one kilogram of papaya leaves, slice become small pieces, and put it in the 15 liters of water. Then put 2 cup of spoon of kerosene or soap liquid to the water. After one night filter the liquid, and spray to the plant that wants to be protected.
     B. The Advantages of Using Bio-Pesticide
            Most of the farmers do not use the bio-pesticide, yet they use chemical pesticide in the agricultural practice. The reason is most of them do not know the dangerous of chemical pesticide. Furthermore, they do not know what are the advantages that they will get if they stop using chemical pesticide and start using bio-pesticide. So, the first thing that they have to know is the advantages that they will get after using the bio-pesticide.
            1. Being safe to be used for the environment and human
            Bio-pesticide is biodegradable. In other words, bio-pesticide is easy to be recycled by the nature. It can happen because the bio-pesticide is made from the organic material. So, when the bio-pesticide reaches the soil after the spraying, the bio-pesticide will be recycled by the bacteria and another microorganism quickly and safely. Not only by the bacteria and the microorganism which lives in the soil but also bio-pesticide can be recycled by the sun light, air, humidity, and another environment factor that might affect. Next, the materials that have been recycled will be sent back to the nature as the safe material and will not make the environment polluted especially will not pollute the soil and the water. This can happens because the materials that have been recycled do not contain toxic substances anymore. This will keep the balance of the ecosystem that live in the nature on track.
            Not only safe for the environment, but also the bio-pesticide is safe for the human as the object that will consume the agricultural product. As we know the pesticide that is sprayed to the plant will make a residue in the plant and stay there for a certain time. Sometimes, even when we wash our vegetable cleanly, the residue of the pesticide substances will keep staying in the vegetable that we will consume. But we do not have to worry if the agricultural product that we will consume using bio-pesticide. The reason is the substances which are contained in the bio-pesticide are safe for human. It is strong enough to kill the pest, but it is too weak to give an effect to human. Even, it does not give any serious problem that should be deal with.
            It does not happen in case of the using of chemical pesticide. When we use the chemical pesticide, the chemical substances or in other words the toxic material and other dangerous substances will stay in the soil for years. It will affect the bacteria and other beneficial microorganism which are located in the soil. The toxic material will contaminate the beneficial organism like worm or even kill the organism. Furthermore, a certain dosage of the toxic will stay in the plant and become the residue that will stay and cannot be vanished from the plant even if we wash it cleanly. And something that makes it become a serious problem is that the pesticide residue which is stayed in the vegetable is a toxic material.
            2.  Keeping the Natural Predators Alive
            Before knowing the reason why bio-pesticide keeps the natural predators alive, we have to know first the definition of natural predators. Natural predators are the predators of the pest that attacks the agricultural plant. Most of the purpose of the attacking is to get the food. Some of the examples of the natural predators are the predatory insect (such as mantis, dragonfly, and ant), and animals that eat other animals for their food (such as snake that prey the rat that become a pest in paddy field. Are natural predators important for farmers ? Yes, it is very important in agricultural practice. The main reason that makes it become so important is the habitual of the natural predators itself. When the natural predators prey the insect or other animals that become a pest in the agriculture field, automatically the natural predators take a part as the controller in the agriculture field that controls the population of the pest the field. On other words, the natural predators give benefit to the farmer whether the farmer realize it or not.
            Now, what will happen if we use chemical pesticide with a high toxicity without a correct dosage? The chemical pesticide will kill all the living organisms in the ecosystem of the agriculture field. The chemical pesticide will not just kill the pest but also it will kill the natural predators that live in the field. This will disturb the balance that has been occurred in the ecosystem. The impact is farmers will lose their partner in controlling the pest in the future. And it will just make farmers use the chemical pesticide more and more because the natural enemy has vanished.
            This will not happen if farmers use bio-pesticide in agricultural practice to kill the pest. The natural predators will keep alive and will not get any effect from the bio-pesticide. It is possible to happen because bio-pesticide works very specific in terms of killing the target. As the example, mindi seed (Melia azedarach) will just give effect to the grasshopper. So when farmers use bio-pesticide which is made from the essence of mindi, other living organisms including the natural predators will not get any effect on it. This specificity of the bio-pesticide makes it become a powerful pesticide but it is very safe to use because it only attacks a specific target and cannot attack other living organisms which are not suitable to the bio-pesticide.

              3. Preventing the Resistance of the Pest
              Sometimes, even though the farmer has used the chemical pesticide, the pest is controlled just for a certain of time. Few moments later, for example in the next month, the farmer finds that the same pest explodes again. When farmers want to use the pesticide (chemical one) and sprays it the field, the pest cannot be controlled anymore. Farmers have to add more dosage in using the pesticide to control the same pest or use another chemical pesticide which is stronger than before. This is called as the resistance of the pest. Resistance is the ability of the insect’s offspring to tolerate the pesticide that kills its ancestor. This condition can be happened because the insect’s offspring bring the new gene that is tolerable to the pesticide. This gene is created by the ancestor as the adaptation action to respond the toxic material that is contained in the chemical pesticide.
              But it will not happen if farmers use bio-pesticide. The reason is bio-pesticide contains several active toxins that work in the same time. This active toxin is produced in the second metabolite of the plant that is used as the material to make bio-pesticide. It is different from chemical pesticide because chemical pesticide contains only one active toxin. It is difficult for the pest to tolerate to the several active toxins that contain in bio-pesticide in the same time. The pest will just able to make one resistance gene for each generation. Furthermore, it needs long process and long time to create many resistance gene that can tolerate all the active toxins that are contain in the chemical pesticide. read part 3 or back to part 1
Jika Kamu Suka, Tolong Klik Tombol:
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