Wednesday, January 23, 2013


Geoglyphs (land pictures) are usually large drawings that have been etched into the landscape and are best viewed from above. Many people have heard about the Nazca Lines but there are many other examples of this art form scattered around the World. These are the top ten geoglyph sites all of which can be seen in Google Earth.

Oxfordshire, England -
C. 1,000 BC

Located near to the village of Uffington in Oxfordshire, England, is one of the oldest and most famous geoglyphs in the world.  Using modern OSL dating it is calculated that it was created around 1,000BC.  The figure is believed to be that of a stylised running horse although a review of the original head structure and curvature of the legs has caused some researchers to suggest that it actually a represents a large cat from the lion or leopard family.  However, as early references from Abbingdon Abbey, which date back to 1072 AD, refer to the area where it is found as "Mons Albi Equi" (Hill-White-Equine) it is generally accepted to be a horse. What is most remarkable is that the figure was created by carving through turf to reveal the white chalk underneath. As such it requires regular maintenance  or it will disappear within 150 years.  This means there has been an unbroken chain of people prepared to look after this prehistoric monument for 3,000 years.
Uffington White Horse
Location: Nr. Uffington, Oxfordshire, England, UK
Created: c. 1000 BC
Length: 105.5m / Width: 29.5m / Trench Depth: 92cm
(Carving in turf to reveal underlying chalk with additional trenches)
Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons

Nevado Sajama
Location: Nr. Nevado Sajama, Jancoaque, Bolivia
Created: Started c. 900 BC
Individual line length: Up to 25 km
Collective Length: Approximately 16,000km
Total Area: 22,525 Square Kilometres
(Removal of surface soil to reveal lighter substrate)
Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons
Bolivia - C. 900 BC

Although they are now hard to see from ground level, and do not depict anything recognisable, the lines etched into the landscape of the Sajama region of Bolivia are almost certainly the largest geoglyphs in the world.  Collectively the lines measure in excess of 160,000m and cover an area of 22,525 square kilometres.  They are incredibly straight even across uneven and rugged terrain and form a network of geometric shapes that tend to intersect at shrines, burial towers and small villages.  This pattern has led archaeologists to speculate that they probably had a religious significance.  The lines were constructed by removing the dark upper layer of soil to expose the lighter substrate beneath.  These geoglyphs were discovered by western explorer-travellers in the late 1920's and the earliest written account in English was made in 1931(33) by Swiss Professor Aimé Felix Tschiffely who rose to fame after riding on horseback from to Argentina to Washington DC.

Paracas Peninsular, Peru - C. 200BC

The Paracas Candelabra is a geoglyph excavated on a sandy  hillside overlooking Pisco bay on the Paracas peninsular of central eastern Chile.  It is almost perfectly aligned north to south and can be seen up to 19 kilometres (12miles) out to sea. Based on pottery found in the area it is believed to be the work of the pre-Incan Paracas peoples. There is much debate regarding what it represents as it is unlikely that such highly stylised candelabra were in use during the period of its construction.  Visually it is similar to some examples of the Atacama Giant Cactus - even down to the fruiting buds. Author Frank Joseph states with certainty that it is a representation of a narcotic plant known as Jimson Weed. Some claim it's a trident while others suggest it was a landmark built by ancient sailors to help them locate a harbour. Local guides often refer to it as (Candelabro de Tres Brazos) The 'Candelabra with Three Arms' or even 'The Sign of the Three Crosses" although this is likely to have been adopted after the arrival of the Spanish.  It is remarkable that the design has survived as long as it has given that the word Paracas actually refers to high winds and sandstorms - some of which can last for up to three days. Traditionally the geoglyph is viewed north to south and from the coast. However, if the design is viewed from the hilltop, it can look like a crucifix supported by two diagonal struts and draped with hanging cloths. It looks as if it will remain a mystery for the foreseeable future.
Paracas Candelabra
(Also known as the Candelabra of the Andes)
Location: Pisco Bay, Paracas Peninsular, Peru
Created: c. 200 BC
Length: 182m / Width: 76.5m / Trench Depth: 61cm
(Excavation of sandy soil later edged with stones)

Viewed North to South Viewed South to North
  • Candelabra
  • Jimson Weed
  • Cactus
  • Tree of Life
  • Trident
  • Draped Crucifix
  • Spaceship / Rocket
It is generally considered unlikely that this geoglyph is related to the mysterious Nazca Lines located only
160 kilometres to the south west of Paracas.

Cerne Abbas Giant - Rude Man of Cerne
Location: Cerne Abbas, Dorset, England, UK
Created: 183 AD or c.1650 AD
Length: 55m / Width: 50.5m / Trench Depth: 30cm
(Carving in turf to reveal underlying chalk)

Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons
England - c. 183 AD / c. 1650 AD

Also known as the Rude Man of Cerne, this huge British geoglyph depicts a naked and priapic man holding a primitive club in his right hand. It is 55 metres in length and 50.5 metres wide if measured from hand to hand. The geoglyph was created by carving through the turf of the hillside to a depth of approximately 30cm to reveal the underlying chalk common in this region. The figure is located close to the village of Cerne Abbas in Dorset, England.  The date that it was made is uncertain.  According to the National Trust there is no record of the Cerne Abbas Giant before 1694 and in 1774, a local historian, the  Rev. John Hutchins attributed its creation to the owner of the land Lord Holles.  Some of the features of the geoglyph have been lost over time and tests have shown that its left hand probably once clutched a severed head.  Theories about what it represents range from a political caricature of Oliver Cromwell to an ancient fertility symbol. Features of the Giant are reminiscent of the hero Hercules and this has led to speculation that it may have started as a classical representation and over time the originally smaller genitals were combined with the giant's navel (belly button) to create the very masculine figure of today.  A significant group of researchers believe that the figure dates back to the time of Emperor Marcus Aurelius Commodus who is recorded as being a great believer in the cult of Hercules to the point of including the hero's name in his own. Some say that the Roman Governor of Britain,  Ulpius Marcellus may have commissioned the original carving in 183 AD as a tribute to the Emperor.

Peru - C. 500 AD

The World's most famous geoglyphs are probably the pictograms and Lines etched into the Pampas de Jumana in Peru.  Recognised as the ancient nation that managed to 'green' a desert the Nazca were also skilled artists and craftsmen who decorated not only their pots and clothing with fascinating designs but the entire arid plateau where they lived.  From 400 AD to about 650 AD the Nazca etched countless lines and pictures into the plateau by the simple process of scraping away the upper layer of reddish soil and pebbles to reveal the lighter substrate underneath.  The first European to recognise the Lines was American anthropologist, Alfred Kroeber in 1926.  The extraordinary scale of the drawings was first identified by Paul Kosok during the early 1930's.  However, the real exploration of the area was undertaken by his one time assistant Maria Reiche. Originally a German mathematician, She dedicated her life to studying the Nazca and was the first person to identify a creature in 1946 which turned out to be a gigantic spider.  Since then hundreds of lines and more than 30 animals have been recorded including an orca, a new world monkey, fish, sharks, llamas and several types of bird.  The fact that the geoglyphs can only truly be seen from above has led to significant speculation that the Nazca had access to some form of aircraft.  Some even more sensationalist writers have claimed that these were meant to be seen by extra terrestrials. Mainstream archaeologists believe that they were created for a religious purpose most likely connected to water and its importance to the agricultural survival of the Nazca.  Follow the link for a detailed review of the mysterious Nazca Lines in Google Earth.
Nazca Spider

Location: Pampas de Jumana, Nazca Desert, Peru
Created: 400 AD to 650 AD
Average Trench Depth: 10cm - 30cm
(Etchings created by the removal of reddish pebbles and soil to reveal lighter substrate)


Spider, New World Monkey, Hummingbird, Astronaut, Condor, Heron, Pelican, Dog, Orca, Shark, Llamas, The Hands, Lizard, Guaney Bird, Flamingo, Parrot, Huarango Tree, The trapezium, The Spiral, Alligator, Sea plants, shells, mushroom and Catfish(?)


It is important to note that some of the geoglyphs have more than one name and a study of local maps purporting to show the locations of the drawings can be seriously inaccurate.

Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons

Blythe Intaglio
(Numerous human and animal figures)

Location: Blythe, Riverside County, California, USA
Created: 1000 AD or earlier
60 Human-like figures
A complex Maze
Animal geoglyphs

Largest Geoglyph - Length: 52m
(Removal of stony layer revealing lighter substrate)

Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons
California, USA - C. 1,000 AD

There are very few examples of large human-like geoglyphs and these are found mainly in Britain and America.  A more recent example, the Marree Man,  has appeared in Australia but is probably less than twenty five years old. This rarity only increases the importance of the Blythe Intaglios. Located in the Colorado Desert of California and 22km north of Blythe are a number of enormous figures etched into the ground.  The largest is a human figure approximately 52 metres in length.  Known as anthropomorphic geoglyphs they were probably created by the by Native American Quechan (Yuma) and Mojave peoples and represent the only collective group of human-like figures anywhere in the world. In total there are approximately 60 humanoid figures.  In almost all of the examples studied, the chest and torso has been much more deeply etched than other parts of the body.  They were first discovered by Europeans in 1932 AD and are believed to have been created around 1000 AD, but may well be much older.  Archaeologists and historians agree that they are most likely representations of mythical figures from Yuman mythology.

Chile - C. 8,000 - 1,400 AD

The Atacama Desert in northern Chile is home to the largest collection of pictorial geoglyphs yet discovered.  In total more than 5,000 examples have been located and recorded. While many  of the figures are of animals and humans one anthropomorphic  geoglyph stands out as a mysterious and extraordinary example of ancient land art. Close to the town of  Huara and on the eastern slope of Cerro Unita  is  the Atacama Giant - a humanoid yet robot-like figure apparently created in the Lluta style which tends to have long narrow legs combined with a square head. At 86 metres in length (not the 115m often quoted) it is the largest human-like ancient geoglyph in the world and 31 metres longer than the Cerne Abbas Giant.  It is believed to be a representation of a pre-Incan shaman and is said to be holding a medicine bag and arrow (quill).  The square face may be a stylised representation of a jaguar mask. Experts have estimated that it dates from between  800 and 1400 AD with the most likely date being c. 900 AD. According to some sources the lines extending from the top of the giant's head represent magical rays and can be used as an astronomical calendar to predict seasons and rainfall.  It is also known locally as the Gigante de Tarapacá.
Atacama Giant - Gigante de Tarapacá
(Gigante de Tarapacá.)
Possible representation of a Shaman
Location: Nr. Huara, Atacama Desert, Chile
Created: c. 900 AD
Length: 86m / Width: 35.5m / Trench Depth: 10cm
(Removal of surface soil to reveal lighter substrate with some stone edging)
Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons

"It is worth noting that similarity between the Atacama Giant and an alien in a space suit continues to be the subject of much debate. The key point is that the ancient artists accurately represented other creatures they drew so why is the Giant so stylised?"

Amazon Geoglyphs - Boco Do Acre Design
(Partial example of one geometric pattern)

Location: Boca do Acre, Brazil
Latitude: 8°50'38.63"S
Longitude: 67°15'11.95"W
Created: c. 1000 AD or earlier
Number of Geoglyphs: 300 plus
Total Site Area: 25,000 Square Kilometres
Trench Depth: Up to 3 metres
Average Pattern Width: 100-150 metres

(100's of geometric patterns probably the remains of deep earthworks related to pre-Columbian human habitation in the region)

Acre, Boca do Acre, Brazil - C. 1,000 AD

While most of the world's major geoglyphs were first identified many decades ago a new and surprising  discovery in Brazil has forced scientists and archaeologists to review their perceptions of pre-Columbian civilisations. Deforestation of the Amazon jungle, particularly in the southwest, has revealed hundreds , if not thousands, of previously unknown geometric geoglyphs that are only visible on satellite images.  Circles, squares and interlinking lines have appeared in numerous places and seem to be evidence of a previously unknown civilisation that may have numbered more than 60,000 people.  Hints of these markings first appeared in aerial photographs taken during the 1970's but it was only when archaeologists started using Google Earth around 2006 than the true scale of deforestation and the number of geoglyphs became apparent. Whether they are cosmetic drawings  or are the remains of towns and roads must still be confirmed. Of equal importance is whether the area in which they were built was once open land or were these shapes carved out of the jungle?  Believed to date back to between 1000 and 600 AD some excellent examples can be found on Google Earth in the fields around the municipality of Boco do Acre, Brazil.

England - C. 1690 AD

Located near to the town of Wilmington in the South Downs (hills) of East Sussex, England, the 'Long Man' is a turf-cut figure of a man holding two staves.  Historians are uncertain when it was created with estimates ranging from around 1690 AD to as early as 2,000 BC. With a length of seventy metres it is the tallest anthropomorphic  geoglyph in Europe. Over the years aspects of the Long Man of Wilmington have changed.  Drawings made by William Burrell in 1766 show that it once held a rake and a scythe although these were probably modifications made after 1710 when the figure was recorded by John Rowley as having facial features and a helmut.  In this case the staves were probably once spears. It is considered a sacred site by Pagans and was probably a representation of an Anglo Saxon war god. Local residents of Wilmington are said to believe that it is prehistoric dating back to the Neolithic period.  In 2010 a large phallus was paint on to the figure similar to that of the Cerne Abbas Giant.  This was swiftly removed.
Long Man of Wilmington
(Possibly an Anglo Saxon War God)

Location: Wilmington, East Sussex, England, UK
Created: c. 1690 AD or earlier

Length: 70m / Width: 36.5m / Trench Depth: 30cm
(Carving in turf to reveal underlying chalk)

Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons

Marree Man - Stuarts Giant
(Stuart's Giant)

(Anthropomorphic geoglyph of a naked Aboriginal hunter holding a throwing stick)

Location: Marree, Finnis Springs, South Australia

(Said to be just outside the Woomera Prohibited Area an Australian Weapons Testing Facility)

Latitude: 29°31'40.39"S
Longitude: 137°28'7.98"E
Created: 1998 AD

Number of Geoglyphs: 1
2,616 metres
Width: 2,106 metres
Total Site Area: 5.5+ Square Kilometres
Trench Depth: Up to 20 cm / ploughed soil

With the exception of the schematic of the Amazon Geoglyphs, The Cerne Abbas Giant and the artists outline of the Marree Man, all images have been sourced from Wikimedia Commons. Credits are noted as follows: 1. NASA, 2. CH Images, 3. Charles Gadbois, 4. Curious Britain, 5. Colegota, 6. Unreferenced, 7. Unreferenced, 8. Curious Britain, 9. P Brophy, 10. Curious Britain
South Australia, Australia - C. 1998

The most recently discovered anthropomorphic (human-like) geoglyph is the Marree Man of Finnis Springs, in the 'outback' of central South Australia.  It is generally considered to be a recently created  but fairly accurate representation of an Aboriginal hunter from the Pitjantjatjara tribe holding a throwing stick.  The scale of the figure is enormous and is approximately 2,600 meters in length (not the 4.2 kilometres stated on Wikipedia).  It was apparently discovered on the 26th June 1998 by aircraft charter pilot Mr Trec Smith and caused a brief but worldwide sensation. It is believed to have been created by earth moving machinery, possibly a tractor and plough,  coordinated by GPS navigational aids.  As with almost all other geoglyphs it is surrounded by mystery and even 15 years after its discovery nobody seems to know for certain who made it or why.  Allegedly a sealed bottle was discovered near the site containing a note stating that the figure was 'Stuart's Giant' along with a small American flag and a reference to the Branch Davidian Cult.   Another version of the story claims that the name Stuart's Giant was first provided in an anonymous press release that referred to John McDouall Stuart a famous Australian explorer who lived between 1815 and 1886 AD. Other finds near the area linked the geoglyph to a publicity stunt for the 2000 Sydney Summer Olympics.  The reality is that even though the creation of the Marree Man is a recent event it is already surrounded in confusion, theorising and misrepresented information.  The appearance of the figure also caused significant controversy when local politicians and aboriginal leaders who condemned the artwork as landscape graffiti, environmental vandalism and even the desecration of sacred land. Even though there were many appeals to have the geoglyph enhanced and made a permanent feature, the area was closed to tourists and the geoglyph is now slowly eroding away. It is still faintly visible on Google Earth satellite images from 2006. At the time of the discovery it was also claimed that only one track entered and exited the area and that no footprints or signs of surveying were ever found.  Other claims state that wooden pegs and markers were located along the lines.  A buried plaque was located at the site which stated" In memory of the land they once knew". An anonymous fax sent in 1999 claimed that the clues to the creator of the giant figure could be found near the Cerne Abbas Giant, another naked geoglyph in Dorset England.  This never materialised.  The creators of the Marree Man have never been formally identified although many people believe it is the work of Bardius Goldberg a somewhat wild artist  who died in 2002 from dental septicaemia caused by a bar fight.

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